Professional Experience

Current – Elisabeth Eljuri, P.A., Miami

Elisabeth Eljuri is an Independent arbitrator and founded her own firm in January 2020.  Since then, Ms. Eljuri has been sitting as arbitrator in multiple international arbitrations related to Latin America and filed under the rules of the ICC, the ICDR, UNCITRAL and ICSID.  Ms. Eljuri is included in the Energy Arbitrators List (EAL) of the ICDR, and the lists kept by the ICC, LCIA and various arbitrations centers in Latin America such as AmCham Peru.  In addition, she is part of the EAL Review Committee and of the Users Council of SIAC.  Ms. Eljuri is a fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (CIARb).

In addition to her arbitrator role, Ms. Eljuri advises in matters related to energy, natural resources and M&A generally.  

Current –  Westlawn Americas Offshore, Houston

CLC and Chief Negotiator of Westlawn Americas Offshore, a private equity- backed portfolio company which was created to capture opportunities in the US Gulf of Mexico and Latin America.   

2016 – 2019 Sierra Oil and Gas, Mexico City and Houston

Vice President, Chief Negotiator and Chief Legal Counsel of Sierra Oil and Gas, a private equity- backed oil upstream company which was created to capture opportunities in the Mexican energy market. The company secured six exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico, one of which included the 9th largest discovery in the history of Mexico.

Ms. Eljuri’s role in fact started earlier in 2014 as outside counsel to the company, with the initial financial closing with three private equity funds (Riverstone Energy, Encap and BlackRock) of two tranches of funding of $525 million each. She then joined the Executive Team in January 2016 and continued advising during the entire growth of the company up until the successful exit in 2019, where she was co-responsible for the negotiation and execution of the Share Purchase Agreement with the purchaser group.

1998 – 2015 Norton Rose Fulbright, Latin America

Head of Latin America for the Firm globally, reporting to the Firm’s CEO. Ms. Eljuri was also a senior partner of the Firm, active in the areas of international arbitration, energy and natural resources and projects/infrastructure. She joined as an equity partner in May 1998, where she co-founded the Caracas office, became Managing Partner and later on held several positions in the Firm, including as a member of the Executive Committee of Canada and Latin America.

For many consecutive years up until her retirement from law firms, Chambers Global and Who’s Who Legal in several different areas of practice ranked Ms. Eljuri as one of the top lawyers in Latin America and Star Individual for Venezuela. On the disputes side, Who’s Who in Commercial Arbitration ranked Ms. Eljuri for several years as a leading arbitration lawyer internationally. Who’s Who in Oil and Gas consistently included Ms. Eljuri in the list of top ten oil and gas practitioners globally. During her time at the Firm, Ms. Eljuri was also President worldwide, and in the board for over a decade, of the prestigious Association of International Petroleum Negotiators (AIPN), a 4000-member association based in Houston, Texas.

In Latin America and Venezuela in particular, Ms. Eljuri focused on corporate and transactional work involving high-end sophisticated transactions for Fortune 500 corporations as well as international dispute work related to international investments. She has significant M&A experience and over the past nearly 30 years of practice, in addition to her contracts and general business practice, she regularly advised multinationals in their handling of political risk and protection of investments in Latin America.

Ms. Eljuri frequently acted as counsel in international arbitrations, including ICC and ICSID cases as well as domestic arbitrations in Latin America. She was also retained as independent expert in several international arbitrations or proceedings and spoken/published extensively in the area of disputes. Ms. Eljuri is on the Energy Arbitrators List kept by the ICDR. She was also on the list of arbitrators of the Arbitration Center of the Caracas Chamber of Commerce (the local ICC chapter) and on the list of the Business Center for Conciliation and Arbitration (CEDCA), Venezuela’s two largest arbitration centers, until her move to the United States in 2014.

1994 – 1998 Baker & McKenzie – Caracas

Senior Associate in the Corporate and Energy Departments of the Firm.

1992 – 1993 Baker & McKenzie – San Francisco

Associate in the International Trade Department of the Firm.

1988 – 1991 Baker & McKenzie – Caracas and New York

Law clerk in Caracas for three consecutive years. Summer associate in New York in 1990.


LL.M., Harvard Law School, Cambridge, 1992

  • Scholarship from Harvard Law School
  • Fundayacucho Scholarship

Orientation in American Law, University of California at Berkeley, Summer 1992

Law Degree, Universidad Católica Andrés Bello, Caracas, 1991

  • Valedictorian
  • Scholarship granted by the national petrochemical company(PEQUIVEN)
  • Represented the University and Venezuela twice at the Philip C. Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition in Washington, D.C.

Bar Admissions

  • New York, 1993
  • Venezuela, 1991


  • Spanish(native)

  • English(fully bilingual)

  • French(spoken)


  • Venezuela
  • St. Kitts and Nevis


  • Upstream Contracts: Best Practices for optimal risk sharing in Mexico’s E&P Industry. Oxford Energy Forum. The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. June 2017. Issue 109.
  • Energy Investment Disputes in Latin America: The Pursuit of Stability. (co- author). Berkeley Journal of International Law. Fall 2015.
  • The Transformation of Mexico’s Hydrocarbon Business. International Energy Law Review. Sweet & Maxwell. Fall 2015.
  • Mexico’s Very First Bid Round (co-author). Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Oxford University Press, August 2015.
  • The Leading Practitioners’ Guide to International Oil & Gas Arbitration (co- author). Juris Publishing, Inc. August 2015.
  • Latin American Upstream Oil and Gas: A Practical Guide to the Law and Regulation (co-author), Global Law and Business. May 2015.
  • Political Risk Management in Natural Resources Projects in the MENA and the Latin American Regions. Oil, Gas and Energy Law (OGEL), October 2014.
  • Mexico’s Energy Sector Reform (co-author). Journal of World Energy Law and Business. Oxford University Press, February 2014.
  • Resource Nationalism: The Shock and the Law. Canadian Mining Journal. October 2013.
  • Handbook for carrying out Energy Projects in Latin American jurisdictions: Venezuela, Mexico and Colombia. University of Eastern Finland. August 2013.
  • Political Risk Management in Latin American Natural Resources Projects: The Toolbox, Special Institute on International Mining and Oil & Gas (Law, Development and Investment), Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation, March 2013.
  • Anti-Capitalist Stance of LatAm Politicians Does Not Devalue Investors’ Opportunities (Comment), Legal Week publication, December 2012.
  • Roundtable: Mining 2013 (Expropriation), The International Who’s Who of Mining Lawyers, November 2012.
  • Venezuela’s Denunciation of the ICSID Convention. What is the Future of Venezuelan BIT’s? Newsletter for the IBA Legal Practice Division. 2012
  • Actualización sobre la nacionalización de los Recursos de América Latina* Elisabeth Eljuri and Verónica Clamens, Oil & Gas Journal Latinoamericana. Enero/Febrero/Marzo 2012,  Año 18, Número 1.
  • Latin America: Despite Volatility and Mood Swings, a surge in licensing and acquisition activity (co-author), Journal of World Energy Law and Business, Oxford University Press, August 2012.
  • IBA Arbitration Guide (co-author), International Bar Association, 2012.
  • International Arbitration in Venezuela (co-author), Norton Rose International Arbitration Newsletter, February 2012.
  • Update on Latin America’s Resource Nationalism, Oil & Gas Journal Latinoamericana, Vol. 1, January 2012.
  • Venezuela denounces the ICSID Convention (co-author), Norton Rose Legal Update, January 2012.
  • Project Finance Venezuela (co-author), Latin Lawyer, 2011.
  • “Arbitraje Comercial en materia de Hidrocarburos” (co-author) in Memoria Arbitral del Centro Empresarial de Conciliación y Arbitraje, Caracas, December 2011.
  • New Venezuelan Windfalls Profits Tax Law (co-author), SEERIL Current Practice Newsletter, Vol. 7, Issue 1, October 2011.
  • IBA Guide on Shareholders’ Agreements, International Bar Association, July 2011.
  • Update on the new Venezuela Windfalls Profits Tax Law (co-author), AIPN, June 2011.
  • Decree with the Rank, Value and Force of a Law Creating a Special Contribution on Extraordinary Prices and Exorbitant Prices in the International Hydrocarbons Market (co-author), Macleod Dixon Bulletin, April 2011.
  • “Navigating through the regulatory framework of the Venezuelan Oil Industry” in International Oil and Gas transactions in Latin America, ed. by Ricardo Colmenter and David Enríquez, ITAM, Mexico, 2011.
  • Key Features of New Upstream Projects in Venezuela’s Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt, AIPN, December 2010.
  • “Venezuela” (co-author) in The International Arbitration Review, Law Business Research Ltd., July 2010.
  • Managing Political Risk in Light of Venezuela’s Partial Nationalization of the Oilfield Services Sector (co-author), Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law, Vol. 28, Issue 3, July 2010.
  • New Trends and Evolution of Environmental Regulation in Venezuela (co- author), International Environmental Law Newsletter (American Bar Association Section of Energy, Environment and Natural Resources), Volume 12, No. 1, December 2009.
  • Venezuela: On the path to complete ‘oil sovereignty’, or the beginning of a new era of investment? (co-author), The Journal of World Energy Law & Business, Fall 2009.
  • The Venezuelan State reserves assets and services related to hydrocarbon primary activities (co-author), Macleod Dixon Bulletin, May 2009.
  • The New Latin American Oil and Gas Scene: Taking the High Road or the Low Road? (co-author), Who’s Who Legal publication, January 2009.
  • Venezuela’s Version of a Windfall Profit Tax (co-author), Tax Notes International, Vol. 53, January 2009.
  • Venezuela’s Exercise of Sovereignty over the Hydrocarbon Industry and Preventive Protections to be considered by Investors, TDM, Vol. 5, Issue 2, April 2008.
  • The 2007 Nationalization of the Venezuelan Orinoco Oil Belt (co- author), TDM, Vol. 5, Issue 2, April 2008.
  • Venezuela: The Battle of Contract Sanctity vs. Resource Sovereignty (editor), TDM & OGEL special feature joint issue, Vol. 5, Issue 2, April 2008.
  • The XXI Transformation of the Venezuelan Oil Industry (co-author), Journal of Energy and Natural Resources Law, Vol. 26, Issue 4, February 2008.
  • BIT Termination and the Survival Clause. What does the concept of protection of investments made prior to termination of the BIT actually cover? (co-author), IBA conference material, Caracas, 2008.
  • “Venezuela” (co-author) in The Mergers and Acquisitions Review, ed. by Simon Robinson, Law Business Research, London, 2008.
  • “Venezuela” (co-author) in International Comparative Legal Guide to Gas Regulation, Global Legal Group Ltd., London, 2008.
  • The 2007 Nationalization of the Venezuelan Orinoco Oil Belt (co- author), Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence, Vol. 5, Issue 4, November 2007.
  • Considerations on Natural Gas Royalties in Venezuela (co-author), AVPG Publications, Vol. 2, November 2004.
  • Venezuela’s Dual Hydrocarbon Regime. Roundup of Articles. OGEl. 2003.
  • “Venezuela” (co-author) in Winning Legal Strategies: International Corporate Law, Aspatore Books, Boston, 2003.
  • Regulations to the Law on the Promotion and Protection of Investments (co- author), Latin American Law and Business Report, August 2002.
  • New Legal Framework for Hydrocarbons in Venezuela (co-author), Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 20, Issue 3, August 2002.
  • A Brief History and Current Trends of Environmental Legislation in Venezuela (co-author), ABA International Environmental Law Committee Newsletter, Volume 3, Issue 4, May 2001.
  • Corporate Structuring of Oil and Gas Projects in Venezuela: Views from the North and South, Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law, Vol. 18, Issue 1, February 2000.
  • The Legal Framework for Gas in Venezuela (co-author), Oil and Gas Law Taxation Review, Vol. 1, 1999.
  • The Developing Framework for Natural Gas in Venezuela (co-author), Oil and Gas Law Taxation Review, Vol. 5, 1999.
  • Los Convenios de Asociación para la Exploración a Riesgo y Producción de Hidrocarburos bajo el Esquema de Ganancias Compartidas. (co- author). Temas de Derecho Petrolero McGraw Hill.1998.


  • Keynote Speech on “Taking the Risk to be Independent “. 2024 Annual Meeting. CPR Institute. Philadelphia, March 2024
  • “Key Features of Successful International Petroleum Contracts”. Cámara de Caracas. Caracas, February 2024.
  • “An International Perspective on Arbitration in the Hydrocarbons Business”. AVDT. XX Jornadas de Tributación Petrolera y Arbitraje. Caracas, November 2023.
  • “Debate on whether a rule against double hatting will prevent the generational change in investment arbitration”. Second Annual LATAM Investor-State Arbitration Conference. MIAS and University of Miami. Miami, November 2023.
  • “Granting Instruments”. Short Course for Oil and Gas Contracts and Negotiations. Houston, September, 2023.
  • “Selecting New York Law for Cross-Border Transactions- A Wise Choice”. NYIAC Grand Central Forum. New York, September 2023.
  • “LatAm:  Traditional vs New Resources: Competing or Complementary?”. International Energy Summit. Association of International Energy Negotiators (AIEN). Miami, May 2023.
  • Vice Chair of the International Mining and Energy Law Development and Investment Institute. Foundation for Natural Resources and Energy Law. Mexico City, April 2023.
  • “Oil and Gas Financing and M&A in the Era of Decarbonisation”. Annual Conference of the IBA. Miami, November 2022.
  • “Common Disputes in the Energy Sector”. Instituto Peruano de Arbitraje. III International Conference on Arbitration and Energy. Lima, June 2022.
  • “Environment and Arbitration”. Global Arbitration Review Live Arbitration Summit. Miami, May 2022.
  • “Renewable Energy Opportunities and Energy-Related Infrastructure Development”. iLaw 2022, International Law Section of the Florida Bar. Miami, April 2022.
  • “Disputes under Production Sharing Agreements”. ITA-IEL-ICC Joint Conference on International Energy Arbitration. Houston, January 2022.
  • “Commercial Arbitrations related to Regulatory Changes”. 2021 ITA-ALARB Americas Workshop. Virtual Conference. September 2021.
  • Keynote Speaker at the launch of CAMMIN, the new arbitral center for mining, energy and environment in Santiago de Chile. July 2021.
  • “Gender Diversity in the Natural Resources Patch”. International Law Section of the American Bar Association. June 2021.
  • Keynote Speaker. “The Time for Collaborative ADR in Latin America is now”. JAMS event. February 2021.
  • “Women in Arbitration”. Global Arbitration Review (GAR). February 2021.
  • “Transparency and International Arbitration”. UNCITRAL DAY 2020. Caracas, December 2020.
  • “Arbitration, Concessions and Energy”. Arbitration Unplugged Series. AmCham Peru and AmCham LAB. Lima, October 2020.
  • “Risk Mitigation in International Energy Ventures”. IEL Webinar. Houston, August 2020.
  • “Best Practices to handle impacts and delays in energy and infrastructure projects during COVID 19”. ICC Infrastructure Disputes Committee‘s virtual conference. Mexico, June 2020.
  • Keynote Speaker, Annual Event of the International Law Section of the Florida Bar, Miami, February 2020.
  • Perspectives on Private Equity, Amicorp Event, Miami, February 2020.
  • “Perspectives on Arbitration”, Global Voices in International Arbitration, guest lecturer at Harvard Law School, Cambridge, March 2018.
  • Dispute Resolution in the Oil and Gas Business. Joint AIPN and ICDR Program. Mexico City, November 2017.
  • “Strategies for Bidders in Mexico”. Mexico’s Oil and Gas Seminar: Investment Opportunities and Regulation. CWC. Mexico, May 2017.
  • Co-chair and speaker RMMLF / AIPN International Oil & Gas Law. Contracts and Negotiations. Houston, each year since 2010.
  • ITAM University. Petroleum Investments Executive Program. Mexico, August 2016.
  • AIPN Oil and Gas Model Contracts Workshop. Banff, Canada. June 2016.
  • Latin Lawyers Seventh Oil and Gas Conference. Mexico City, Mexico. May 2016.
  • Programa de Inversiones en Energía. ITAM. Mexico City. April 2016.
  • Foreign Affairs Live Event: Mexico’s Energy Future. New York, March 2016.
  • Overview of the M&A Market in Latin America. Biennial Latin America Regional IBA Forum. Rio de Janeiro, March 2016.
  • International Module Chair. Institute of Energy Law (IEL) Oil and Gas Law Conference. Houston, February 2016.
  • “State Investment Disputes”. LCIA/AIPN Conference on Dispute Resolution in the International Oil and Gas Business. London, October 2015.
  • “Mexico’s Contractual Frameworks: Securing successful participation in the upcoming rounds”. CWC Mexico Upstream Conference. Mexico City, September 2015.
  • “International arbitration topics in the context of the Mexican energy reform”. Global Energy Conference of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). Mexico August 2015.
  • “Fiscal Regimes in Latin America with a focus on Mexico”. World Gas Conference. Paris, June 2015.
  • “Challenges and Opportunities with the Mexican Production Sharing Contract”. Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Institute. Cartagena, April 2015.
  • “Key Contractual Challenges of the Mexican Production Sharing Contracts”. BNA Americas Conference. Mexico, April 2015.
  • “Minimizing and Maximizing Bankability in the Energy Sector”. CANCHAM Day. Mexico City, April 2015.
  • “Mexico’s New Opportunities and Challenges”. Oil Council Latin America Conference. Bogota, January 2015.
  • “Instructor on Farmout Agreements”. RMMLF/AIPN International Oil & Gas Law, Contracts and Negotiations. Houston, October 2014.
  • “A new era for Mexico: Exploring New Opportunities”. Mexico Upstream Contracts and Deepwater. CWC. Mexico, October 2014.
  • “State Investment Disputes”. AIPN/ICDR Conference on Dispute Resolution in the International Oil and Gas Business. Calgary, October 2014.
  • Speaker at the ICC Conference on the “Case Study on Consolidation of Arbitrations under the ICC Rules”. August 2014.
  • Speaker at the ITA Annual Conference on “The Spectre of Enforcement Risk and Inefficient Arbitral Procedures”. June 2014.
  • “Civil law aspects of the Joint Operating Agreement”. AIPN Model Contracts Workshop. San Francisco, June 2014.
  • Panelist at the UT Law: Emerging Trends in International Arbitration, Santiago de Chile, June 2014.
  • Co-Chair of the Dispute Resolution Module of the 4th IEL-SEERIL (IBA) Conference, London, December 2013.
  • “Resource Nationalism, Expropriation and Creeping Expropriation affecting the Extractive Sector” at the Special Institute on International Energy and Minerals Arbitration, Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation, Toronto, September 2013.
  • “Political Risk Management in Latin American Natural Resources Projects: The Toolbox,” Special Institute on International Mining and Oil & Gas (Law, Development and Investment), Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation, Cartagena, March 2013.
  • “Taking the Hammer to Misbehaving Counsel: A review over arbitrator authority”. ICC Latin America Annual Conference. Miami, November, 2012.
  • Rapidfire Latin American Update on Arbitration. ICDR Latin America Conference. Miami, September 2012.
  • “M&A Activity in the Energy Business”. Instituto Peruano de Arbitraje. Lima, August 2012.
  • “Confronting Ethical Issues in International Arbitration” (faculty member for workshop organized by the Institute for Transnational Arbitration (ITA)-CCB Americas, Bogota, October 2010.
  • “Latin American Oil and Gas Disputes” ICDR/AIPN Conference on Dispute Resolution in the International Oil and Gas Business, Houston, April 2010.
  • “Parallel Proceedings in Multijurisdiction Disputes,” IBA Conference, Washington DC, April 2010.
  • “Pre-Arbitration Counseling: What to do when the Deal with the Government Starts to Unravel?” Joint IBA and IEL Conference, London, November 2009.
  • “Arbitration of Natural Resources Disputes involving Latin American States or State Entities,” ICC Annual Conference, Miami, November 2009.
  • “Best Practices to handle impacts and delays in energy and infrastructure projects during COVID 19”. ICC Infrastructure Disputes Committee‘s virtual conference. Mexico, June 2019.


  • Selected as Distinguished Negotiator for the year 2023 by the Association of International Energy Negotiators (AIEN).  Ceremony held in Houston in November 2023.
  • Key Women in Energy 2004 Awards.  This award recognized women in the energy profession in six distinct categories at a ceremony held in Washington DC in 2004.
  • Association of International Petroleum Negotiators (AIPN). Member of the Year Award in 2008. This award goes to the one member (sometimes two), out of about 4000 members, that the Association recognizes for its contributions.
  • Latin Lawyer. Law Firm Leader of the Year Award. 2011. This award goes once a year to the top law firm leader in a major Latin American jurisdiction. It evidences leadership skills and widespread recognition.
  • Latin Lawyer. Women in Law Award. 2016. Elisabeth was recognized for her leadership as one of the top senior lawyers in Latin America.

Rankings & Recognitions

  • Chambers Latin America in the areas of Energy & Natural Resources (star individual ranking) and Corporate/M&A
  • Chambers Global: The World’s Leading Lawyers for Business: Corporate/M&A and Energy & Natural Resources (star)
  • The International Who’s Who of Oil and Gas Lawyers “one of the ten most highly regarded individuals” in the world
  • Association of International Petroleum Negotiators (AIPN).  Member of the Year Award in 2008. 
  • IFLR1000: Energy and Infrastructure: Latin America – Leading lawyer in Banking and Finance; Projects; Corporate and Commercial; Disputes; and Energy & Natural Resources; and Compliance and Public Law
  • The Legal 500 Latin America: Tier 1 leading lawyer in Corporate/M&A and Energy & Natural Resources
  • Best Lawyers – Lawyer of the Year in the areas of Corporate and M&A
  • Latin Lawyer Law Firm Leader of the Year 2012
  • Who’s Who Legal, Global Mining Law Firm of the Year
  • The International Who’s Who of Arbitration Lawyers
  • The International Who’s Who of Mergers & Acquisitions Lawyers
  • The International Who’s Who of Corporate Governance
  • The International Who’s Who of Project Finance Lawyers
  • Euromoney Expert Guides – named ‘The Best of the Best’ in Energy and Natural Resources “one of the top 25 natural resources and energy lawyers in the world”
  • PLC Which Lawyer? (Venezuela) in the area of Energy



  • International Court of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC)
    • Ex Officio Member  2024-2027
  • Miami International Arbitration Society (MIAS)
    • Member of the Board of Directors 2024
  • Latin American Arbitration Association (ALARB)
    • Co-Chair of the Energy and Natural Resources Committee (April 2023 – present)
  • Foundation for Natural Resources and Energy Law 
    • Vice Chair of the Special Institute on International Mining and Oil and Gas, Development, and Investment,Mexico 2023
    • Co-Chair of the Oil and Gas Contracts and Negotiation Course since 2012 organized by FENRL and AIEN
  • Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (FCIArb)
  • International Law Students Association
    • Member of the Board (2020-2023)
  • Association of International Energy Negotiators (formerly AIPN)
    • Immediate Past President (2014-2015)
    • President (2013-2014)
    • President-Elect (2012-2013)
    • Vice-President (2008-2012)
    • Regional Director for Latin America (2005-2008)
  • Co-chair of the Legal Committee of AMEXHI, the Mexican Hydrocarbons Association, Mexico 2016-2018
  • Editorial Board of the Journal of World Energy Law & Business (2014-2020)
  • Institute for Transnational Arbitration (ITA)
    • Chair, Americas Initiative (2013-2015)
    • Executive Committee member (2013-2015)
  • Young Presidents’ Organization (YPO)
    • Officer of the Venezuela Chapter (2010-2015)  
  • International Bar Association
    • Officer of the Oil and Gas Committee (2010-2015)
  • Council of the Australasian Forum for International Arbitration (AFIA).
  • New York State Bar Association
  • Miranda State Bar Association (Venezuela) (until 2015)
  • Official arbitrator of the local ICC chapter in Venezuela (Caracas Chamber of Commerce) until 2015
  • Official arbitrator of the CEDCA arbitration centre in Caracas until 2017
  • Harvard Law School Alumni Association
    • Executive Committee (2010-2014)
  • National Administrator for the Philip C Jessup International Law Moot Court Competition, Venezuela (1990-2013) and President of the Philip C Jessup Foundation in Venezuela
  • Contracts Professor, Law School, Universidad Central de Venezuela (1994 – 1996)